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Emergency First Aid

First Aid is the immediate and temporary care given to the ill or injured to:

As adults we will have to deal with the small cuts and bruises that children will inevitably get. Occasionally, we may need to deal with something a little more serious. It is therefore really useful to get some training in basic first aid, just in case, by attending a course by a qualified trainer. Below is some basic information for dealing with potentially life threatening situations.


First Aid Procedure

A

Assess

Look for dangers – is it safe to approach the casualty? Call for help. Introduce yourself to the casualty before assessing them. If unconscious try giving a command, squeeze shoulders, shout then pinch ear. Look for medical bracelets and necklaces.

B

Breathing

Is the casualty breathing? Is the airway clear? Open airway if necessary.  Check in mouth. Look, listen and feel for breathing. Commence Rescue Breaths if not breathing. Consider using a barrier when giving mouth to mouth.

C

Circulation

Look for signs of circulation. Is the face pale or grey and lips bluish? Quickly look and feel for any major bleeding. Chest compressions – correct positioning below sternum.

D

Deformity

Full body examination. Compare one side of body with other. Seek permission from conscious casualty and get medical information, illnesses, drugs or medication taken, next of kin.

E

Emotion

Talk positively to casualty even if unconscious. Maintain body contact. Monitor vital signs and check whether you have missed anything. Be aware of the weather.


Some Common Emergency Concerns

Concern

Description

Recognition

Treatment

Shock

Disruption to the blood circulatory system that can lead to unconsciousness and death.

Pale, ashen, cold clammy skin.
Rapid pulse, becoming weaker.
Rapid shallow breathing.
Nausea & vomiting.
Decreasing consciousness.

Identify and treat cause of shock – keep head low – raise legs slightly to allow blood to flow to vital organs – monitor vital signs.

Asthma

Constriction of the air passages making breathing difficult.

Wheezing & coughing.
Distress & anxiety.
Severe – difficulty talking, blue lips, rapid pulse.

Reassure & sit casualty upright.
Treat with blue asthma pump.
If no improvement in 5 minutes ring 999 or 112 for ambulance.

Anaphylaxis

A severe allergic reaction triggered by a certain food, drug or insect sting.

Anxiety.
Blotchy rash & puffy eyes.
Swelling of throat and tongue.
Difficulty breathing.
Signs of shock.

Call for ambulance.
If casualty has Epi-pen (adrenaline injection) help administer.

Seizure

Usually caused by febrile convulsions or epilepsy.

Muscle twitching, clenched fists & arched back. May also have fever, unusual eye movement, breath holding, reduced consciousness.

Remove any hard objects from around child. Dial 999 or 112 for ambulance. Place in recovery position.

Fractures

Broken bones.

Recent blow or fall.
Difficulty moving.
Severe pain & tenderness. Distortion, swelling or bruising.

If open fracture treat bleeding by pressure to sides of wound.
If closed fracture make casualty comfortable. Ring 999 or 112 for ambulance and/or parent.

Head Injuries

Any blow to head causing concussion (brief unconsciousness) can be potentially life-threatening

Blow to head.
Loss of consciousness.
Dizziness and nausea.
Loss of memory about event.
Generalised headache.

Any loss of consciousness for more than a few seconds ring ambulance. If unconscious call ambulance treat as also having neck injury. Children with brief concussion should still see a doctor.

Bleeding

Open wounds leading to blood loss and risk of infection.

Visible wound & bleeding.
Staining of clothes.
Signs of shock.

Wear gloves.
Control bleeding by direct pressure to wound. Cover with dressing(s) applied firmly to wound. Elevate above heart if possible.


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Medical Resources